Comparison of forward- and back-projection in vivo EPID dosimetry for VMAT treatment of the prostate.
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In the forward-projection method of portal dosimetry for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), the integrated signal at the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) is predicted at the time of treatment planning, against which the measured integrated image is compared. In the back-projection method, the measured signal at each gantry angle is back-projected through the patient CT scan to give a measure of total dose to the patient. This study aims to investigate the practical agreement between the two types of EPID dosimetry for prostate radiotherapy. The AutoBeam treatment planning system produced VMAT plans together with corresponding predicted portal images, and a total of 46 sets of gantry-resolved portal images were acquired in 13 patients using an iViewGT portal imager. For the forward-projection method, each acquisition of gantry-resolved images was combined into a single integrated image and compared with the predicted image. For the back-projection method, iViewDose was used to calculate the dose distribution in the patient for comparison with the planned dose. A gamma index for 3% and 3 mm was used for both methods. The results were investigated by delivering the same plans to a phantom and repeating some of the deliveries with deliberately introduced errors. The strongest agreement between forward- and back-projection methods is seen in the isocentric intensity/dose difference, with moderate agreement in the mean gamma. The strongest correlation is observed within a given patient, with less correlation between patients, the latter representing the accuracy of prediction of the two methods. The error study shows that each of the two methods has its own distinct sensitivity to errors, but that overall the response is similar. The forward- and back-projection EPID dosimetry methods show moderate agreement in this series of prostate VMAT patients, indicating that both methods can contribute to the verification of dose delivered to the patient.
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Radiotherapy treatment planning
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Phys Med Biol, 2018, 63 (2), pp. 025008 - ?