The safety of nivolumab for the treatment of metastatic melanoma.
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INTRODUCTION: Nivolumab, a human IgG4 monoclonal antibody directed against PD-1, is a checkpoint inhibitor that is licenced in the treatment of metastatic melanoma either as a monotherapy or in combination with ipilimumab, a CTLA-4 inhibitor. The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors to the therapeutic landscape has dramatically altered outcomes in a proportion of patients with metastatic melanoma. Immune checkpoint inhibitors result in a toxicity profile that is distinct from that of chemotherapy or targeted therapy based on their immunomodulatory mechanism and similarly can result in patterns of response that are unique. Areas covered: Herein we will profile nivolumab's efficacy and safety both as a combination therapy and a monotherapy and discuss the results of relevant clinical trials in this respect. Expert opinion: The future of immunotherapy in melanoma will evolve around the development of biomarkers, the refinement of criteria to define patterns of response and toxicity and the combination of current immunotherapies with existing and novel agents to maximise responses.
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immune related adverse events
Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor
Melanoma and Kidney Cancer
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Expert Opin Drug Saf, 2017, 16 (8), pp. 955 - 961