Liposomal irinotecan in gemcitabine-refractory metastatic pancreatic cancer: efficacy, safety and place in therapy.
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal disease. The majority of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic disease with a prognosis of short months. Therapeutic options are limited and until recently, there was no standard second-line chemotherapy option. Liposomal constructs have been engineered to encapsulate chemotherapy thereby preventing premature metabolism, improving distribution and minimizing toxicity. Favourable preclinical data on liposomal irinotecan and early phase trials, led to a recently published phase III trial of liposomal irinotecan in combination with fluorouracil and folinic acid in patients with metastatic PDAC, who progressed after gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. As a direct result, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) have approved the use of liposomal irinotecan in this setting. However, first-line treatment options for this disease now include the combination regimen, FOLFIRINOX, in patients with good performance status, and the role of second-line combination treatment with liposomal irinotecan in this setting is unclear. Recent advances have changed the therapeutic landscape, as clinicians are now able to choose a sequential approach to treatment tailored to the individual patient characteristics. This article reviews current treatment options for metastatic PDAC and focuses on the efficacy, safety and place in therapy of liposomal irinotecan.
Gastrointestinal Cancers Clinical Trials
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Therapeutic advances in medical oncology, 2017, 9 (3), pp. 159 - 170