Immunomodulatory effects of heat-killed Mycobacterium obuense on human blood dendritic cells
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Heat-killed (HK) Mycobacterium obuense is a novel immunomodulator, currently undergoing clinical evaluation as an immunotherapeutic agent in the treatment of cancer. Here, we examined the effect of in vitro exposure to HK M. obuense on the expression of different categories of surface receptors on human blood myeloid (m) and plasmacytoid (p) DCs. Moreover, we have characterized the cytokine and chemokine secretion patterns of purified total blood DCs stimulated with HK M. obuense. HK M. obuense significantly up-regulated the expression of CD11c, CD80, CD83, CD86, CD274 and MHC class II in whole-blood mDCs and CD80, CD123 and MHC class II in whole-blood pDCs. Down-regulation of CD195 expression in both DC subpopulations was also noted. Further analysis showed that HK M. obuense up-regulated the expression of CD80, CD83 and MHC class II on purified blood DC subpopulations. TLR2 and TLR1 were also identified to be engaged in mediating the HK M. obuense-induced up-regulation of surface receptor expression on whole blood mDCs. In addition, our data demonstrated that HK M. obuense augmented the secretion of CCL4, CCL5, CCL22, CXCL8, IL-6, IL-12p40 and TNF-α by purified total blood DCs. Taken together, our data suggest that HK M. obuense exerts potent differential immunomodulatory effects on human DC subpopulations.
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Innate Immunity, 2017, 23 (7), pp. 592 - 605