Noninvasive detection of carboxypeptidase G2 activity in vivo.
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The pseudomonad protein, carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2), is a prodrug-activating enzyme utilized in the targeted chemotherapy strategies of antibody- and gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT and GDEPT). We have developed a noninvasive imaging approach to monitor CPG2 activity in vivo that will facilitate the preclinical and clinical development of CPG2-based ADEPT and GDEPT strategies. Cleavage of the novel reporter probe, 3,5-difluorobenzoyl-L-glutamic acid (3,5-DFBGlu), by CPG2, in human colon adenocarcinoma WiDr xenografts engineered to stably express CPG2, was monitored using (19)F MRSI. The high signal-to-noise ratio afforded by the two MR-equivalent (19)F nuclei of 3,5-DFBGlu, and the 1.4 ppm (19)F chemical shift difference on CPG2-mediated cleavage, enabled the dynamics and quantification of the apparent pharmacokinetics of 3,5-DFBGlu and its CPG2-mediated cleavage in the tumor to be evaluated. In addition, the apparent rate of increase of 3,5-difluorobenzoic acid concentration could also provide a biomarker of CPG2 activity levels in tumors of patients undergoing CPG2-based therapies, as well as a biomarker of treatment response. The addition of in vivo reporter probes, such as 3,5-DFBGlu, to the armamentarium of prodrugs cleaved by CPG2 affords new applications for CPG2 as a gene reporter of transgene expression.
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Cell Line, Tumor
Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
Gene & Oncogene Targeting
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NMR in biomedicine, 2011, 24 (4), pp. 343 - 350