Novel and Emerging Drugs for Rarer Chronic Lymphoid Leukaemias
Rarer chronic lymphoid leukaemias represent a challenge to the clinicians due to the limited information on their pathogenesis, difficulties on setting up prospective clinical trials and to their refractoriness to drugs used in the most common form of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). In this review all these issues are addressed in three B-cell leukaemias: B-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia (B-PLL), hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) and HCL-variant and three T-cell leukaemias: T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia (T-PLL), T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia (T-cell LGLL) and adult T-cell leukaemia lymphoma (ATLL). Data will be presented on the natural history, current therapies and emerging drugs potentially useful in the treatment of patients with these leukaemias. Emphasis is made on: 1- the novel agents targeting a variety of B and T-cell antigens expressed on the surface of the leukaemic cells; these are either unconjugated monoclonal antibodies (McAb) such as Rituximab (anti-CD20), the second and third generation of anti-CD20 McAbs, Alemtuzumab (anti-CD52), Siplizumab (anti-CD2), Daclizumab (anti-CD25) and KW-0761, an anti-chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) or McAbs conjugated to toxins such as CD22 linked to the pseudomonas exotoxin or radiolabelled McAb; 2- the use of new purine nucleosides such as nelarabine and 3- agents targeting deregulated genes in the leukaemic cells from these diseases such as the Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) Olarapib in T-PLL with deregulation of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. Data of phase I and II clinical studies with these agents as well as the potential and current use of other drugs are outlined.
ATLL clinical trial hairy cell leukaemia immunochemotherapy LGLL prolymphocyte purine analogues targeted therapy hairy-cell leukemia chronic lymphocytic-leukemia large granular lymphocytes b-prolymphocytic leukemia term-follow-up t-lgl lymphocytosis phase-ii trial interferon-alpha recombinant immunotoxin arsenic trioxide
Molecular Haematology (including Cytogenetics Group and Cell Markers)
License start date
2012, pp. 484 - 504