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dc.contributor.authorEdmunds, DM
dc.contributor.authorBashforth, SE
dc.contributor.authorTahavori, F
dc.contributor.authorWells, K
dc.contributor.authorDonovan, EM
dc.identifier.citationJOURNAL OF APPLIED CLINICAL MEDICAL PHYSICS, 2016, 17 pp. 446 - 453
dc.description.abstractConsumer-grade distance sensors, such as the Microsoft Kinect devices (v1 and v2), have been investigated for use as marker-free motion monitoring systems for radiotherapy. The radiotherapy delivery environment is challenging for such sensors because of the proximity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) from the pulse forming network which fires the magnetron and electron gun of a linear accelerator (linac) during radiation delivery, as well as the requirement to operate them from the control area. This work investigated whether using Kinect v2 sensors as motion monitors was feasible during radiation delivery. Three sensors were used each with a 12 m USB 3.0 active cable which replaced the supplied 3 m USB 3.0 cable. Distance output data from the Kinect v2 sensors was recorded under four conditions of linac operation: (i) powered up only, (ii) pulse forming network operating with no radiation, (iii) pulse repetition frequency varied between 6 Hz and 400 Hz, (iv) dose rate varied between 50 and 1450 monitor units (MU) per minute. A solid water block was used as an object and imaged when static, moved in a set of steps from 0.6 m to 2.0 m from the sensor and moving dynamically in two sinusoidal-like trajectories. Few additional image artifacts were observed and there was no impact on the tracking of the motion patterns (root mean squared accuracy of 1.4 and 1.1 mm, respectively). The sensors’ distance accuracy varied by 2.0 to 3.8 mm (1.2 to 1.4 mm post distance calibration) across the range measured; the precision was 1 mm. There was minimal effect from the EMI on the distance calibration data: 0 mm or 1 mm reported distance change (2 mm maximum change at one position). Kinect v2 sensors operated with 12 m USB 3.0 active cables appear robust to the radiotherapy treatment environment.
dc.format.extent446 - 453
dc.publisherMULTIMED INC
dc.titleThe feasibility of using Microsoft Kinect v2 sensors during radiotherapy delivery
dc.typeJournal Article
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
pubs.notesaffiliation: Edmunds, DM (Reprint Author), Royal Marsden NHS Fdn Trust, Dept Phys, Downs Rd, Sutton SM2 5PT, Surrey, England. Edmunds, David M.; Donovan, Ellen M., Royal Marsden NHS Fdn Trust, Dept Phys, Downs Rd, Sutton SM2 5PT, Surrey, England. Bashforth, Sophie E., Royal Holloway Univ London, Dept Phys, Egham, Surrey, England. Tahavori, Fatemeh; Wells, Kevin, Univ Surrey, Ctr Vis Speech & Signal Proc, Guildford, Surrey, England. keywords: radiotherapy; motion monitoring; sensors; electromagnetic interference keywords-plus: REAL-TIME; BREATH-HOLD; MOTION; SYSTEM; TRACKING; DEPTH research-areas: Radiology, Nuclear Medicine & Medical Imaging web-of-science-categories: Radiology, Nuclear Medicine & Medical Imaging author-email: [email protected] researcherid-numbers: Edmunds, David/N-5104-2018 funding-acknowledgement: National Institute of Health Research [CDF-2013-06-005]; NHS Executive funding-text: This report is independent research supported by the National Institute of Health Research (Career Development Fellowship, Dr Ellen Donovan, CDF-2013-06-005). The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the National Institute for Health Research or the Department of Health. The work was undertaken in The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust which receives a proportion of its funding from the NHS Executive. The authors acknowledge the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at The Royal Marsden and the Institute of Cancer Research. The authors wish to thank Clive Long and Craig Cummings at the Institute of Cancer Research workshop for fabricating the custom sensor mount; Stephen Hamilton and Joseph Nurse for assistance with the radiation experiments; and Microsoft for three Kinect v2 sensors and accessories. number-of-cited-references: 20 times-cited: 2 usage-count-last-180-days: 1 usage-count-since-2013: 2 journal-iso: J. Appl. Clin. Med. Phys doc-delivery-number: ED5XS unique-id: ISI:000388927500040 oa: gold da: 2018-07-25
pubs.notesNot known
pubs.embargo.termsNot known
dc.contributor.icrauthorEdmunds, Daviden

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