Ultrasound bioeffects and safety.
ter Haar, G
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The main mechanisms by which ultrasound can induce biological effects as it passes through the body are thermal and mechanical in nature. The mechanical effects are primarily related to the presence of gas, whether drawn out of solution by the negative going ultrasound pressure wave (acoustic cavitation), a naturally occurring gas body (such as lung alveoli), or deliberately introduced into the blood stream to increase imaging contrast (microbubble contrast agents). Observed biological effects are discussed in the context of these mechanisms and their relevance to ultrasound safety is discussed.
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Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of engineering in medicine, 2010, 224 (2), pp. 363 - 373