Yeast Phosducin-Like Protein 2 Acts as a Stimulatory Co-Factor for the Folding of Actin by the Chaperonin CCT via a Ternary Complex
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The eukaryotic chaperonin-containing TCP-1 (CCT) folds the cytoskeletal protein actin. The folding mechanism of this 16-subunit, 1-MDa machine is poorly characterised due to the absence of quantitative in vitro assays. We identified phosducin-like protein 2, Plp2p (=PLP2), as an ATP-elutable binding partner of yeast CCT while establishing the CCT interactome. In a novel in vitro CCT-ACT1 folding assay that is functional under physiological conditions, PLP2 is a stimulatory co-factor. In a single ATP-driven cycle, PLP2-CCT-ACT1 complexes yield 30-fold more native actin than CCT-ACT1 complexes. PLP2 interacts directly with ACT1 through the C-terminus of its thioredoxin fold and the CCT-binding subdomain 4 of actin. The in vitro CCT-ACT1-PLP2 folding cycle of the preassembled complex takes 90 s at 30 degrees C, several times slower than the canonical chaperonin GroEL. The specific interactions between PLP2, CCT and ACTI in the yeast-component in vitro system and the pronounced stimulatory effect of PLP2 on actin folding are consistent with in vivo genetic approaches demonstrating an essential and positive role for PLP2 in cellular processes involving actin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In mammalian systems, however, several members of the PLP family, including human PDCL3, the orthologue of PLP2, have been shown to be inhibitory toward CCT-mediated folding of actin in vivo and in vitro. Here, using a rabbit-reticulocyte-derived in vitro translation system, we found that inhibition of p-actin folding by PDCL3 can be relieved by exchanging its acidic C-terminal extension for that of PLP2. It seems that additional levels of regulatory control of CCT activity by this PLP have emerged in higher eukaryotes. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, 2009, 391 pp. 192 - 206
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