In vitro prevention of the emergence of multidrug resistance in a pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma cell line
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We have established preclinical models for the development of drug resistance to vincristine (a major drug used in the treatment of pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma) using cell lines. The RD cell line has a mutant P53 phenotype and does not have detectable P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or multidrug resistance-related protein (MRP) despite expressing low levels of mdr-1 mRNA, which encodes P-gp and mrp1 mRNA. Resistant variants of RD were derived by exposure to increasing concentrations of vincristine. This was repeated on six occasions, resulting in three cell lines which could tolerate 64 X the IC50 concentration. Six independent agents were tested for their ability to prevent the development of resistance in this model. Despite at least 10 attempts, resistance did not develop in the presence of the multidrug resistance (MDR) modulators PSC833, VX710, and XR9576. This strongly suggests that these agents may delay or even prevent the development of resistance to vincristine. This was also confirmed in a second rhabdomyosarcoma cell line, Rh30. In contrast, the agents indomethacin (MRP1 modulator), CGP41251 (protein kinase C inhibitor), and dexrazoxane (putative MDR prevention agent) did not affect the development of resistance in the RD model. Characterization of the resistant cell lines indicated the presence of increased mdr-1 and P-gp expression, which resulted in resistance to the agents doxorubicin, etoposide, and vincristine but not cisplatin. The resistance could be modulated using PSC833 or VX710, confirming that functional P-gp is present. No apparent differences were seen between the resistant cell lines derived in the absence and presence of the various agents. These experiments strongly suggest that the development of MDR may be preventable using modulators of MDR and merit clinical studies to test this hypothesis.
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CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH, 2001, 7 pp. 3193 - 3198