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dc.contributor.authorMartin, FLen_US
dc.contributor.authorCole, KJen_US
dc.contributor.authorWeaver, Gen_US
dc.contributor.authorHong, GSen_US
dc.contributor.authorLam, BCen_US
dc.contributor.authorBalaram, Pen_US
dc.contributor.authorGrover, PLen_US
dc.contributor.authorPhillips, DHen_US
dc.identifier.citationMUTAGENESIS, 2001, 16 pp. 401 - 406en_US
dc.description.abstractDietary and/or environmental factors appear to play a key role in the international variations that exist in breast cancer incidence. The genotoxicity of breast milk extracts is being examined as a possible indicator of in vivo exposure of mammary epithelial cells to DNA-damaging agents. Breast milk samples were obtained from the UK (n = 32), a high risk country, and from Hong Kong (n = 10), India (n = 20) and Singapore (n = 20), countries of lower breast cancer incidence. The abilities of breast milk extracts to induce DNA damage detected as single-strand breaks (SSBs) in the alkaline Comet assay and to induce micronuclei in MCL-5 cells and mutations in Salmonella typhimurium YG1019 were investigated. In the Comet assay 18 of 32 (56%) UK samples induced significant increases in DNA SSBs compared with 2 of 10 (20%), 5 of 20 (25%) and 8 of 20 (40%) of the samples from Hong Kong, India and Singapore, respectively. The proportion of positive samples was significantly higher in the UK group than in the combined low breast cancer incidence group and significantly higher than in the Indian group (P < 0.05, Fisher’s exact test). In the micronucleus assay 9 of 32 (28%) UK samples showed significant activity compared with 0 of 10 (0%), 2 of 20 (10%) and 3 of 20 (15%) of the samples from Hong Kong, India and Singapore, respectively. Extracts of all the aforementioned milk samples were also tested for bacterial mutagenicity. Nine of 32 (28%) UK samples induced significant activity with a dose-response effect. Although activity was detected in samples from the other countries, comparable dose-response data could not be obtained because of a lack of material. This pilot study suggests that genotoxic components occur more frequently in UK breast milk than in milk from some other countries with a lower incidence of cancer. More work is required to confirm these initial findings and to examine their relevance to variations in breast cancer incidence.en_US
dc.format.extent401 - 406en_US
dc.publisherOXFORD UNIV PRESSen_US
dc.titleGenotoxicity of human breast milk from different countriesen_US
dc.typeJournal Article
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_US
pubs.notesaffiliation: Phillips, DH (Reprint Author), Inst Canc Res, Haddow Labs, Cotswold Rd, Sutton SM2 5NG, Surrey, England. Inst Canc Res, Haddow Labs, Sutton SM2 5NG, Surrey, England. Queen Charlottes & Chelsea Hosp, Dept Paediat, London W6 0XG, England. Singapore Gen Hosp, Singapore 169608, Singapore. Reg Canc Ctr, Div Res, Trivandrum 695011, Kerala, India. Tsan Yuk Hosp, Dept Paediat, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China. keywords-plus: HETEROCYCLIC AROMATIC-AMINES; MCL-5 CELLS; COMET ASSAY; DNA-DAMAGE; CANCER; EXTRACTS; TRANSFORMATION; INDUCTION; ETIOLOGY; RISK research-areas: Genetics & Heredity; Toxicology web-of-science-categories: Genetics & Heredity; Toxicology researcherid-numbers: Balaram, Prabha/A-7026-2010 number-of-cited-references: 27 times-cited: 15 usage-count-last-180-days: 0 usage-count-since-2013: 2 journal-iso: Mutagenesis doc-delivery-number: 473CN unique-id: ISI:000171022200005 oa: gold_or_bronze da: 2018-09-24en_US
pubs.notesNot knownen_US
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Closed research teams
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Closed research teams/Human Biomonitoring & Carcinogen Activation
pubs.embargo.termsNot knownen_US
icr.researchteamHuman Biomonitoring & Carcinogen Activationen_US
dc.contributor.icrauthorPhillips, David Hunteren_US
dc.contributor.icrauthorCole, Kathleenen_US
dc.contributor.icrauthorGrover, Philipen_US

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