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dc.contributor.authorPfau, Wen_US
dc.contributor.authorMartin, FLen_US
dc.contributor.authorCole, KJen_US
dc.contributor.authorWeaver, Gen_US
dc.contributor.authorMarquardt, Hen_US
dc.contributor.authorPhillips, DHen_US
dc.contributor.authorGrover, PLen_US
dc.identifier.citationMutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 2001, 498 pp. 207 - 217en_US
dc.description.abstractBreast cancer may be initiated by environmental/dietary agents and human milk may act as an ex vivo indicator of in vivo exposure of mammary epithelial cells to genotoxins. Extracts of human milk from UK-resident women (n=7) were tested for their abilities to morphologically transform C3H/M2 mouse fibroblasts. Genotoxicities were assessed in the Salmonella typhimurium reverse-mutation assay in the presence of S9 using strains TA1538 and YG1019, and in metabolically-competent human MCL-5 cells with the micronucleus and with the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assays. Two of the seven extracts were inactive in the transformation assay both in the presence or absence of S9, two appeared to be equally transforming either in the presence or absence of S9, and two other extracts induced increased transformation frequencies in the presence of S9. A seventh extract, tested only in the absence of S9, was inactive. Extracts were either active or inactive in at least three of the four tests applied. Four extracts were active or inactive in all four tests. The results suggest that human milk could be used as a resource for investigations of the as-yet-unidentified transforming agents previously detected in mammary lipid.en_US
dc.format.extent207 - 217en_US
dc.titleMorphological transformation of C3H/M2 mouse fibroblasts by, and genotoxicity of, extracts of human milken_US
dc.typeJournal Article
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_US
dc.relation.isPartOfMutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesisen_US
pubs.noteskeywords: Morphological transformation, Human milk extracts, Breast cancer, Ames test, Micronucleus assay, Comet assayen_US
pubs.notesNot knownen_US
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Closed research teams
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Closed research teams/Human Biomonitoring & Carcinogen Activation
pubs.embargo.termsNot knownen_US
icr.researchteamHuman Biomonitoring & Carcinogen Activationen_US
dc.contributor.icrauthorPhillips, David Hunteren_US
dc.contributor.icrauthorCole, Kathleenen_US
dc.contributor.icrauthorGrover, Philipen_US

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