Prostate Cancer Germline Variations and Implications for Screening and Treatment.
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Prostate cancer (PCa) is a highly heritable disease, and rapid evolution of sequencing technologies has enabled marked progression of our understanding of its genetic inheritance. A complex polygenic model that involves common low-penetrance susceptibility alleles causing individually small but cumulatively significant risk and rarer genetic variants causing greater risk represent the current most accepted model. Through genome-wide association studies, more than 100 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with PCa risk have been identified. Consistent reports have identified germline mutations in the genes <i>BRCA1</i>, <i>BRCA2</i>, <i>MMR</i>, <i>HOXB13</i>, <i>CHEK2</i>, and <i>NBS1</i> as conferring moderate risks, with some leading to a more aggressive disease behavior. Considering this knowledge, several research strategies have been developed to determine whether targeted prostate screening using genetic information can overcome the limitations of population-based prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. Germline DNA-repair mutations are more frequent in men with metastatic disease than previously thought, and these patients have a more favorable response to therapy with poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Genomic information is a practical tool that has the potential to enable the concept of precision medicine to become a reality in all steps of PCa patient care.
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Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Cell Cycle Proteins
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Early Detection of Cancer
Genome-Wide Association Study
Molecular Targeted Therapy
Checkpoint Kinase 2
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Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine, 2018, 8 (9)
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