Prostate Cancer Germline Variations and Implications for Screening and Treatment.
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Prostate cancer (PCa) is a highly heritable disease, and rapid evolution of sequencing technologies has enabled marked progression of our understanding of its genetic inheritance. A complex polygenic model that involves common low-penetrance susceptibility alleles causing individually small but cumulatively significant risk and rarer genetic variants causing greater risk represent the current most accepted model. Through genome-wide association studies, more than 100 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with PCa risk have been identified. Consistent reports have identified germline mutations in the genes BRCA1, BRCA2, MMR, HOXB13, CHEK2, and NBS1 as conferring moderate risks, with some leading to a more aggressive disease behavior. Considering this knowledge, several research strategies have been developed to determine whether targeted prostate screening using genetic information can overcome the limitations of population-based prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. Germline DNA-repair mutations are more frequent in men with metastatic disease than previously thought, and these patients have a more favorable response to therapy with poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Genomic information is a practical tool that has the potential to enable the concept of precision medicine to become a reality in all steps of PCa patient care.
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Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med, 2018, 8 (9)