National survey of fiducial marker insertion for prostate image guided radiotherapy.
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<h4>Introduction</h4>In the United Kingdom fiducial marker IGRT is the second most common verification method employed in radical prostate radiotherapy yet little evidence exists to support centres introducing or developing this practice. We developed a survey to elicit current fiducial marker practices adopted in the UK, to recommend standardisation of practice.<h4>Methods</h4>A 16 question survey was distributed across UK Radiotherapy centres via promotion at the British Uro-Oncology Group Conference, 2016. Included were questions relating to workforce planning, patient preparation, insertion procedure and verification methods. The survey was open from September 2016 to January 2017.<h4>Results</h4>Results from 15 centres routinely inserting fiducial markers for prostate IGRT are presented. Eleven professional groups insert fiducial markers across the UK. Fourteen centres insert fiducial markers trans-rectally; one trans-perineally. Centres adopting a trans-rectal approach administer prophylactic ciprofloxacin as a single agent or combined with gentamicin or metronidazole; poor agreement between regimes presented. One centre has introduced targeted antibiotic prophylaxis. Five brands of fiducial markers are utilised nationally. Fourteen centres standardly insert three single fiducial markers, two common configurations emerged. Coupled fiducial markers are routinely implanted by one centre. All centres delay at least one week between fiducial marker insertion and planning CT; seven centres wait two weeks. The most common fiducial verification method is two-dimensional, paired kilo Voltage imaging.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Variation in fiducial marker practice across the UK is considerable. Standardisation is required to support centres and healthcare professionals developing this service. Seven recommendations, to unify practice, have been proposed based on survey results and literature.
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Surveys and Questionnaires
Practice Patterns, Physicians'
Radiography (London, England : 1995), 2018, 24 (4), pp. 275 - 282