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dc.contributor.authorYoung, Ken_US
dc.contributor.authorHughes, DJen_US
dc.contributor.authorCunningham, Den_US
dc.contributor.authorStarling, Nen_US
dc.coverage.spatialEnglanden_US
dc.date.accessioned2019-03-04T15:39:16Z
dc.date.issued2018en_US
dc.identifierhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30574212en_US
dc.identifier10.1177_1758835918816281en_US
dc.identifier.citationTher Adv Med Oncol, 2018, 10 pp. 1758835918816281 - ?en_US
dc.identifier.issn1758-8340en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://repository.icr.ac.uk/handle/internal/3128
dc.identifier.doi10.1177/1758835918816281en_US
dc.description.abstractDespite decades of research, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) continues to have the worst 5-year survival of any malignancy. With 338,000 new cases diagnosed and over 300,000 deaths per year globally there is an urgent unmet need to improve the therapeutic options available. Novel immunotherapies have shown promising results across multiple solid tumours, in a number of cases surpassing chemotherapy as a first-line therapeutic option. However, to date, trials of single-agent immunotherapies in PDAC have been disappointing and PDAC has been labelled as a nonimmunogenic cancer. This lack of response may in part be attributed to PDAC's unique tumour microenvironment (TME), consisting of a dense fibrotic stroma and a scarcity of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes. However, as our understanding of the PDAC TME evolves, it is becoming apparent that the problem is not simply the immune system failing to recognize the cancer. There is a highly complex interplay between stromal signals, the immune system and tumour cells, at times possibly restraining tumour growth and at others supporting growth and metastasis. Understanding this complexity will enable the development of rational combinations with immunotherapy, priming the TME to offer immunotherapy the best chance of success. This review seeks to describe the unique challenges of the PDAC TME, the potential opportunities it may afford and the trials in progress capitalizing on recent insights in this area.en_US
dc.format.extent1758835918816281 - ?en_US
dc.languageengen_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en_US
dc.subjectPDACen_US
dc.subjectcheckpoint inhibitorsen_US
dc.subjectimmunotherapyen_US
dc.subjectpancreatic canceren_US
dc.subjectvaccinesen_US
dc.titleImmunotherapy and pancreatic cancer: unique challenges and potential opportunities.en_US
dc.typeJournal Article
dcterms.dateAccepted2018-10-31en_US
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1177/1758835918816281en_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2018en_US
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_US
dc.relation.isPartOfTher Adv Med Oncolen_US
pubs.notesNot knownen_US
pubs.organisational-group/ICR
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Clinical Studies
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Clinical Studies/Gastrointestinal Cancers Clinical Trials
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Clinical Studies/Gastrointestinal Cancers Clinical Trials/Gastrointestinal Cancers Clinical Trials (hon.)
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Clinical Studies/Medicine (RMH Smith Cunningham)
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Clinical Studies/Medicine (RMH Smith Cunningham)/Medicine (RMH Smith Cunningham) (hon.)
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/Royal Marsden Clinical Units
pubs.publication-statusPublished onlineen_US
pubs.volume10en_US
pubs.embargo.termsNot knownen_US
icr.researchteamGastrointestinal Cancers Clinical Trialsen_US
icr.researchteamMedicine (RMH Smith Cunningham)en_US
dc.contributor.icrauthorCunningham, Daviden_US
dc.contributor.icrauthorStarling, Naureenen_US


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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/