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dc.contributor.authorShah, MA
dc.contributor.authorCunningham, D
dc.contributor.authorMetges, J-P
dc.contributor.authorVan Cutsem, E
dc.contributor.authorWainberg, Z
dc.contributor.authorElboudwarej, E
dc.contributor.authorLin, K-W
dc.contributor.authorTurner, S
dc.contributor.authorZavodovskaya, M
dc.contributor.authorInzunza, D
dc.contributor.authorLiu, J
dc.contributor.authorPatterson, SD
dc.contributor.authorZhou, J
dc.contributor.authorHe, J
dc.contributor.authorThai, D
dc.contributor.authorBhargava, P
dc.contributor.authorBrachmann, CB
dc.contributor.authorCantenacci, DVT
dc.identifier.citationJournal for immunotherapy of cancer, 2021, 9 (12)en_US
dc.description.abstract<h4>Background</h4>Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) selectively cleaves extracellular matrix proteins contributing to tumor growth and an immunosuppressive microenvironment. This study evaluated andecaliximab (ADX), an inhibitor of MMP9, in combination with nivolumab (NIVO), for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer.<h4>Methods</h4>Phase 2, open-label, randomized multicenter study evaluating the efficacy, safety, and pharmacodynamics of ADX+NIVO versus NIVO in patients with pretreated metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and adverse events (AEs). We explored the correlation of efficacy outcomes with biomarkers.<h4>Results</h4>144 patients were randomized; 141 were treated: 81% white, 69% male, median age was 61 years in the ADX+NIVO group and 62 years in the NIVO-alone group. The ORR was 10% (95% CI 4 to 19) in the ADX+NIVO group and 7% (95% CI 2 to 16) in the NIVO-alone group (OR: 1.5 (95% CI 0.4 to 6.1; p=0.8)). There was no response or survival benefit associated with adding ADX. AE rates were comparable in both treatment groups; the most common AEs were fatigue, decreased appetite, nausea, and vomiting. Programmed cell death ligand 1, interferon-γ (IFN), and intratumoral CD8+ cell density were not associated with treatment response or survival. The gene signature most correlated with shorter survival was the epithelial-to-mesenchymal gene signature; high transforming growth factor (TGF)-β fibrosis score was negatively associated with OS (p=0.036). Gene expression analysis of baseline tumors comparing long-(1+ years) and short-term (<1 year) survivors showed that GRB7 was associated with survival beyond 1 year. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive disease was associated with significantly longer survival (p=0.0077). Median tumor mutation burden (TMB) was 2.01; patients with TMB ≥median had longer survival (p=0.0025) and improved PFS (p=0.016). Based on a model accounting for TMB, TGF-β fibrosis, and HER2, TMB was the main driver of survival in this patient population.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Combination of ADX+NIVO had a favorable safety profile but did not improve efficacy compared with NIVO alone in patients with pretreated metastatic gastric or GEJ adenocarcinoma. HER2 positivity, higher TMB or GRB7, and lower TGF-β were associated with improved outcomes.<h4>Trial registration number</h4>NCT02864381 or GS-US-296--2013.en_US
dc.titleRandomized, open-label, phase 2 study of andecaliximab plus nivolumab versus nivolumab alone in advanced gastric cancer identifies biomarkers associated with survival.en_US
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.relation.isPartOfJournal for immunotherapy of canceren_US
pubs.notesNot knownen_US
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Clinical Studies
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Clinical Studies/Medicine (RMH Smith Cunningham)
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Clinical Studies/Medicine (RMH Smith Cunningham)/Medicine (RMH Smith Cunningham) (hon.)
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/Royal Marsden Clinical Units
pubs.embargo.termsNot knownen_US
icr.researchteamMedicine (RMH Smith Cunningham)
dc.contributor.icrauthorCunningham, Daviden_US

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