Effects of Bladder Cancer on UK Healthcare Costs and Patient Health-Related Quality of Life: Evidence From the BOXIT Trial.
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Background Limited evidence exists regarding the cost and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) effects of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) recurrence and progression to muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We examined these effects using evidence from a recent randomized control trial.Material and methods The costs and HRQoL associated with bladder cancer were assessed using data from the BOXIT trial (bladder COX-2 inhibition trial; n = 472). The cost and HRQoL effects from clinical events were estimated using generalized estimating equations. The costs were derived from the recorded resource usage and UK unit costs. HRQoL was assessed using the EQ-5D-3L and reported UK preference tariffs. The events were categorized using the TMN classification.Results Cases of grade 3 recurrence and progression were associated with statistically significant HRQoL decrements (-0.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.13 to -0.03; and -0.10; 95% CI, -0.17 to -0.03, respectively). The 3-year average cost per NMIBC patient was estimated at £8735 (95% CI, 8325-9145). Cases of grade 1, 2, and 3 recurrence were associated with annual cost effects of £1218 (95% CI, 403-2033), £1677 (95% CI, 920-2433), and £3957 (95% CI, 2332-5583), respectively. Progression to MIBC was associated with an average increase in costs of £5407 (95% CI, 2663-8152).Conclusion Evidence from the BOXIT trial suggests that patients with NMIBC will both experience decrements in HRQoL and incur significant costs, especially in the event of a grade 3 recurrence or a progression to MIBC.
Clinical Trials & Statistics Unit
ICR-CTSU Urology and Head and Neck Trials Team
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Clinical genitourinary cancer, 2020, 18 (4), pp. e418 - e442