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dc.contributor.authorO'Shea, Ten_US
dc.contributor.authorBamber, Jen_US
dc.contributor.authorFontanarosa, Den_US
dc.contributor.authorvan der Meer, Sen_US
dc.contributor.authorVerhaegen, Fen_US
dc.contributor.authorHarris, Een_US
dc.date.accessioned2017-03-01T11:37:15Z
dc.date.issued2016-04en_US
dc.identifier.citationPhysics in medicine and biology, 2016, 61 (8), pp. R90 - 137en_US
dc.identifier.issn0031-9155en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://repository.icr.ac.uk/handle/internal/419
dc.identifier.eissn1361-6560en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1088/0031-9155/61/8/r90en_US
dc.description.abstractImaging has become an essential tool in modern radiotherapy (RT), being used to plan dose delivery prior to treatment and verify target position before and during treatment. Ultrasound (US) imaging is cost-effective in providing excellent contrast at high resolution for depicting soft tissue targets apart from those shielded by the lungs or cranium. As a result, it is increasingly used in RT setup verification for the measurement of inter-fraction motion, the subject of Part I of this review (Fontanarosa et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 R77-114). The combination of rapid imaging and zero ionising radiation dose makes US highly suitable for estimating intra-fraction motion. The current paper (Part II of the review) covers this topic. The basic technology for US motion estimation, and its current clinical application to the prostate, is described here, along with recent developments in robust motion-estimation algorithms, and three dimensional (3D) imaging. Together, these are likely to drive an increase in the number of future clinical studies and the range of cancer sites in which US motion management is applied. Also reviewed are selections of existing and proposed novel applications of US imaging to RT. These are driven by exciting developments in structural, functional and molecular US imaging and analytical techniques such as backscatter tissue analysis, elastography, photoacoustography, contrast-specific imaging, dynamic contrast analysis, microvascular and super-resolution imaging, and targeted microbubbles. Such techniques show promise for predicting and measuring the outcome of RT, quantifying normal tissue toxicity, improving tumour definition and defining a biological target volume that describes radiation sensitive regions of the tumour. US offers easy, low cost and efficient integration of these techniques into the RT workflow. US contrast technology also has potential to be used actively to assist RT by manipulating the tumour cell environment and by improving the delivery of radiosensitising agents. Finally, US imaging offers various ways to measure dose in 3D. If technical problems can be overcome, these hold potential for wide-dissemination of cost-effective pre-treatment dose verification and in vivo dose monitoring methods. It is concluded that US imaging could eventually contribute to all aspects of the RT workflow.en_US
dc.formatPrint-Electronicen_US
dc.format.extentR90 - 137en_US
dc.languageengen_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en_US
dc.subjectHumansen_US
dc.subjectNeoplasmsen_US
dc.subjectUltrasonographyen_US
dc.subjectMovementen_US
dc.subjectAlgorithmsen_US
dc.subjectRadiotherapy, Image-Guideden_US
dc.titleReview of ultrasound image guidance in external beam radiotherapy part II: intra-fraction motion management and novel applications.en_US
dc.typeJournal Article
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1088/0031-9155/61/8/r90en_US
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2016-04en_US
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_US
dc.relation.isPartOfPhysics in medicine and biologyen_US
pubs.issue8en_US
pubs.notesNo embargoen_US
pubs.organisational-group/ICR
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Radiotherapy and Imaging
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Radiotherapy and Imaging/Imaging for Radiotherapy Adaptation
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Radiotherapy and Imaging/Ultrasound & Optical Imaging
pubs.publication-statusPublisheden_US
pubs.volume61en_US
pubs.embargo.termsNo embargoen_US
icr.researchteamImaging for Radiotherapy Adaptationen_US
icr.researchteamUltrasound & Optical Imagingen_US
dc.contributor.icrauthorBamber, Jeffreyen_US
dc.contributor.icrauthorHarris, Emmaen_US


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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/