Applications of Systematic Molecular Scaffold Enumeration to Enrich Structure-Activity Relationship Information.
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Establishing structure-activity relationships (SARs) in hit identification during early stage drug discovery is important in accelerating hit confirmation and expansion. We describe the development of EnCore, a systematic molecular scaffold enumeration protocol using single atom mutations, to enhance the application of objective scaffold definitions and to enrich SAR information from analysis of high-throughput screening output. A list of 43 literature medicinal chemistry compound series, each containing a minimum of 100 compounds, published in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry was collated to validate the protocol. Analysis using the top representative Level 1 scaffolds this list of literature compound series demonstrated that EnCore could mimic the scaffold exploration conducted when establishing SAR. When EnCore was applied to analyze an HTS library containing over 200 000 compounds, we observed that over 70% of the molecular scaffolds matched extant scaffolds within the library after enumeration. In particular, over 60% of the singleton scaffolds with only one representative compound were found to have structurally related compounds after enumeration. These results illustrate the potential of EnCore to enrich SAR information. A case study using literature cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors further demonstrates the advantage of EnCore application in establishing SAR from structurally related scaffolds. EnCore complements literature enumeration methods in enabling changes to the physicochemical properties of molecular scaffolds and structural modifications to aliphatic rings and linkers. The enumerated scaffold clusters generated would constitute a comprehensive collection of scaffolds for scaffold morphing and hopping.
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Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors
Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
Medicinal Chemistry 1 (including Analytical Chemistry)
J Chem Inf Model, 57 (1), pp. 27 - 35