Therapeutic Dose Response of Acoustic Cluster Therapy in Combination With Irinotecan for the Treatment of Human Colon Cancer in Mice.
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Introduction: Acoustic Cluster Therapy (ACT) comprises coadministration of a formulation containing microbubble-microdroplet clusters (PS101) together with a regular medicinal drug and local ultrasound (US) insonation of the targeted pathological tissue. PS101 is confined to the vascular compartment and when the clusters are exposed to regular diagnostic imaging US fields, the microdroplets undergo a phase shift to produce bubbles with a median diameter of 22 µm. Low frequency, low mechanical index US is then applied to drive oscillations of the deposited ACT bubbles to induce biomechanical effects that locally enhance extravasation, distribution, and uptake of the coadministered drug, significantly increasing its therapeutic efficacy. Methods: The therapeutic efficacy of ACT with irinotecan (60 mg/kg i.p.) was investigated using three treatment sessions given on day 0, 7, and 14 on subcutaneous human colorectal adenocarcinoma xenografts in mice. Treatment was performed with three back-to-back PS101+US administrations per session with PS101 doses ranging from 0.40-2.00 ml PS101/kg body weight (n = 8-15). To induce the phase shift, 45 s of US at 8 MHz at an MI of 0.30 was applied using a diagnostic US system; low frequency exposure consisted of 1 or 5 min at 500 kHz with an MI of 0.20. Results: ACT with irinotecan induced a strong, dose dependent increase in the therapeutic effect (R2 = 0.95). When compared to irinotecan alone, at the highest dose investigated, combination treatment induced a reduction in average normalized tumour volume from 14.6 (irinotecan), to 5.4 (ACT with irinotecan, p = 0.002) on day 27. Median survival increased from 34 days (irinotecan) to 54 (ACT with irinotecan, p = 0.002). Additionally, ACT with irinotecan induced an increase in the fraction of complete responders; from 7% to 26%. There was no significant difference in the therapeutic efficacy whether the low frequency US lasted 1 or 5 min. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the enhancement observed in the efficacy of ACT with irinotecan when PS101+US was administered before or after irinotecan. An increase in early dropouts was observed at higher PS101 doses. Both mean tumour volume (on day 27) and median survival indicate that the PS101 dose response was linear in the range investigated.
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Cancer Pharmacology & Stress Response (CPSR)
Ultrasound & Optical Imaging
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Frontiers in pharmacology, 2019, 10 pp. 1299 - ?