Development and external validation of a dynamic prognostic nomogram for primary extremity soft tissue sarcoma survivors.
van Praag, VVM
van de Sande, MAJ
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Background:Prognostic nomograms for patients with extremity soft tissue sarcoma (eSTS) typically predict survival or the occurrence of local recurrence or distant metastasis at time of surgery. Our aim was to develop and externally validate a dynamic prognostic nomogram for overall survival in eSTS survivors for use during follow-up. Methods:All primary eSTS patients operated with curative intent between 1994 and 2013 at three European and one Canadian sarcoma centers formed the development cohort. Patients with Fédération Française des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC) grade II and grade III eSTS operated between 2000 and 2016 at seven other European reference centers formed the external validation cohort. We used a landmark analysis approach and a multivariable Cox model to create a dynamic nomogram; the prediction window was fixed at five years. A backward procedure based on the Akaike Information Criterion was adopted for variable selection. We tested the nomogram performance in terms of calibration and discrimination. Findings:The development and validation cohorts included 3740 and 893 patients, respectively. The variables selected applying the backward procedure were patient's age, tumor size and its interaction with landmark time, tumor FNCLCC grade and its interaction with landmark time, histology, and both local recurrence and distant metastasis (as first event) indicator variables. The nomogram showed good calibration and discrimination. Harrell C indexes at different landmark times were between 0.776 (0.761-0.790) and 0.845 (0.823-0.862) in the development series and between 0.675 (0.643-0.704) and 0.810 (0.775-0.844) in the validation series. Interpretation:A new dynamic nomogram is available to predict 5-year overall survival at different times during the first three years of follow-up in patients operated for primary eSTS. This nomogram allows physicians to update the individual survival prediction during follow-up on the basis of baseline variables, time elapsed from surgery and first-event history.
Sarcoma and Melanoma Surgery
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EClinicalMedicine, 2019, 17 pp. 100215 - ?