Imaging tumour hypoxia with oxygen-enhanced MRI and BOLD MRI.
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Hypoxia is known to be a poor prognostic indicator for nearly all solid tumours and also is predictive of treatment failure for radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery and targeted therapies. Imaging has potential to identify, spatially map and quantify tumour hypoxia prior to therapy, as well as track changes in hypoxia on treatment. At present no hypoxia imaging methods are available for routine clinical use. Research has largely focused on positron emission tomography (PET)-based techniques, but there is gathering evidence that MRI techniques may provide a practical and more readily translational alternative. In this review we focus on the potential for imaging hypoxia by measuring changes in longitudinal relaxation [R<sub>1</sub>; termed oxygen-enhanced MRI or tumour oxygenation level dependent (TOLD) MRI] and effective transverse relaxation [R<sub>2</sub>*; termed blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MRI], induced by inhalation of either 100% oxygen or the radiosensitising hyperoxic gas carbogen. We explain the scientific principles behind oxygen-enhanced MRI and BOLD and discuss significant studies and their limitations. All imaging biomarkers require rigorous validation in order to translate into clinical use and the steps required to further develop oxygen-enhanced MRI and BOLD MRI into decision-making tools are discussed.
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Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Quantitative Biomedical Imaging
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The British journal of radiology, 2019, 92 (1095), pp. 20180642 - ?