Managing Nonmetastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer.
de Bono, JS
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CONTEXT:Patients with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC) have rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and castrate testosterone levels, with no radiological findings of metastatic disease on computed tomography and bone scan. Given recent drug approvals for nmCRPC, with many other therapeutics and imaging modalities being developed, management of nmCRPC is a rapidly evolving field that merits detailed investigation. OBJECTIVE:To review current nmCRPC management practices and identify opportunities for improving care of nmCRPC patients. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION:A literature search up to July 2018 was conducted, including clinical trials and clinical practice guidelines (National Comprehensive Cancer Network, European Society for Medical Oncology, European Association of Urology, Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group, Prostate Cancer Radiographic Assessments for Detection of Advanced Recurrence). Keywords included prostate cancer, nonmetastatic, castration resistance, rising PSA, and biochemical relapse. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS:Recommendations regarding indications for, and frequency of, imaging and PSA testing, as well as for initiating systemic therapy in nmCRPC are based on PSA rise kinetics and symptoms. Both enzalutamide and apalutamide have been shown to significantly increase metastasis-free survival in phase III placebo-controlled randomised trials in nmCRPC patients with PSA doubling time (DT) ≤10 mo. The expected impact of new imaging techniques in the assessment of nmCRPC is also reviewed. CONCLUSIONS:nmCRPC is a heterogeneous disease; while observation may be an option for some patients, enzalutamide and apalutamide may be appropriate to treat nmCRPC patients with PSA-DT ≤10 mo. The emergence of more accurate imaging modalities as well as circulating tumour biomarker assays will likely redefine the assessment of nmCRPC in the near future. PATIENT SUMMARY:Herein, we review key literature and clinical practice guidelines to summarise the optimal management of patients with prostate cancer and rising prostate-specific antigen despite castrate testosterone levels, but with no evidence of distant metastasis on traditional imaging. New drugs are being developed for this disease setting; novel imaging and tumour biomarker blood tests are likely to define this disease state more accurately.
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Predictive Value of Tests
Whole Body Imaging
Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant
Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography
Prostate Cancer Targeted Therapy Group
Translational Molecular Imaging
License start date
European urology, 2019, 75 (2), pp. 285 - 293