A randomised Phase II trial of carboplatin and gemcitabine ± vandetanib in first-line treatment of patients with advanced urothelial cell cancer not suitable to receive cisplatin.
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<h4>Objectives</h4>To assess the efficacy and tolerability of the dual epidermal growth factor receptor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor, vandetanib, in combination with carboplatin and gemcitabine in the first-line treatment of patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma urothelial cancer (UC) who were unsuitable for cisplatin.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>From 2011 to 2014, 82 patients were randomised from 16 hospitals across the UK into the TOUCAN double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised Phase II trial, receiving six 21-day cycles of intravenous carboplatin (target area under the concentration versus time curve 4.5, day 1) and gemcitabine (1000 mg/m<sup>2</sup> days 1 and 8) combined with either oral vandetanib 100 mg or placebo (once daily). Progression-free survival (PFS; primary endpoint), adverse events, tolerability and feasibility of use, objective response rate and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were used to analyse the primary endpoint.<h4>Results</h4>The 82 patients were randomised 1:1 to vandetanib (n = 40) or placebo (n = 42), and 25 patients (30%) completed six cycles of all allocated treatment. Toxicity Grade ≥3 was experienced in 80% (n = 32) and 76% (n = 32) of patients in the vandetanib and placebo arms, respectively. The median PFS was 6.8 and 8.8 months for the vandetanib and placebo arms, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.76; P = 0.71); the median OS was 10.8 vs 13.8 months (HR 1.41, 95% CI 0.79-2.52; P = 0.88); and radiological response rates were 50% and 55%.<h4>Conclusion</h4>There is no evidence that vandetanib improves clinical outcome in this setting. Our present data do not support its adoption as the regimen of choice for first-line treatment in patients with UC who were unfit for cisplatin.
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Carcinoma, Transitional Cell
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Clinical Academic Radiotherapy (Huddart)
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BJU international, 2020, 126 (2), pp. 292 - 299