Data-driven mapping of hypoxia-related tumor heterogeneity using DCE-MRI and OE-MRI.
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Purpose Previous work has shown that combining dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI and oxygen-enhanced (OE)-MRI binary enhancement maps can identify tumor hypoxia. The current work proposes a novel, data-driven method for mapping tissue oxygenation and perfusion heterogeneity, based on clustering DCE/OE-MRI data.Methods DCE-MRI and OE-MRI were performed on nine U87 (glioblastoma) and seven Calu6 (non-small cell lung cancer) murine xenograft tumors. Area under the curve and principal component analysis features were calculated and clustered separately using Gaussian mixture modelling. Evaluation metrics were calculated to determine the optimum feature set and cluster number. Outputs were quantitatively compared with a previous non data-driven approach.Results The optimum method located six robustly identifiable clusters in the data, yielding tumor region maps with spatially contiguous regions in a rim-core structure, suggesting a biological basis. Mean within-cluster enhancement curves showed physiologically distinct, intuitive kinetics of enhancement. Regions of DCE/OE-MRI enhancement mismatch were located, and voxel categorization agreed well with the previous non data-driven approach (Cohen's kappa = 0.61, proportional agreement = 0.75).Conclusion The proposed method locates similar regions to the previous published method of binarization of DCE/OE-MRI enhancement, but renders a finer segmentation of intra-tumoral oxygenation and perfusion. This could aid in understanding the tumor microenvironment and its heterogeneity. Magn Reson Med 79:2236-2245, 2018. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung
Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Area Under Curve
Reproducibility of Results
Principal Component Analysis
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Quantitative Biomedical Imaging
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Magnetic resonance in medicine, 2018, 79 (4), pp. 2236 - 2245