Rapid 4D-MRI reconstruction using a deep radial convolutional neural network: Dracula.
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<h4>Background and purpose</h4>4D and midposition MRI could inform plan adaptation in lung and abdominal MR-guided radiotherapy. We present deep learning-based solutions to overcome long 4D-MRI reconstruction times while maintaining high image quality and short scan times.<h4>Methods</h4>Two 3D U-net deep convolutional neural networks were trained to accelerate the 4D joint MoCo-HDTV reconstruction. For the first network, gridded and joint MoCo-HDTV-reconstructed 4D-MRI were used as input and target data, respectively, whereas the second network was trained to directly calculate the midposition image. For both networks, input and target data had dimensions of 256 × 256 voxels (2D) and 16 respiratory phases. Deep learning-based MRI were verified against joint MoCo-HDTV-reconstructed MRI using the structural similarity index (SSIM) and the naturalness image quality evaluator (NIQE). Moreover, two experienced observers contoured the gross tumour volume and scored the images in a blinded study.<h4>Results</h4>For 12 subjects, previously unseen by the networks, high-quality 4D and midposition MRI (1.25 × 1.25 × 3.3 mm<sup>3</sup>) were each reconstructed from gridded images in only 28 seconds per subject. Excellent agreement was found between deep-learning-based and joint MoCo-HDTV-reconstructed MRI (average SSIM ≥ 0.96, NIQE scores 7.94 and 5.66). Deep-learning-based 4D-MRI were clinically acceptable for target and organ-at-risk delineation. Tumour positions agreed within 0.7 mm on midposition images.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results suggest that the joint MoCo-HDTV and midposition algorithms can each be approximated by a deep convolutional neural network. This rapid reconstruction of 4D and midposition MRI facilitates online treatment adaptation in thoracic or abdominal MR-guided radiotherapy.
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Radiotherapy Physics Modelling
Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, 2021