Local excision and treatment of early node-negative anal squamous cell carcinomas in a highly HIV prevalent population.
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<h4>Background</h4>Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is an uncommon cancer associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. There has been increasing interest in providing organ-sparing treatment in small node-negative ASCC's, however, there is a paucity of evidence about the use of local excision alone in people living with HIV (PLWH). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of local excision alone in this patient population.<h4>Methods</h4>We present a case series of stage 1 and stage 2 ASCC in PLWH and HIV negative patients. Data were extracted from a 20-year retrospective cohort study analysing the treatment and outcomes of patients with primary ASCC in a cohort with a high prevalence of HIV.<h4>Results</h4>Ninety-four patients were included in the analysis. Fifty-seven (61%) were PLWH. Thirty-five (37%) patients received local excision alone as treatment for ASCC, they were more likely to be younger (p = 0.037, ANOVA) and have either foci of malignancy or well-differentiated tumours on histology (p = 0.002, Fisher's exact test). There was no statistically significant difference in 5-year disease-free survival and recurrence between treatment groups, however, patients who had local excision alone and PLWH were both more likely to recur later compared to patients who received other treatments for ASCC. (72.3 months vs 27.3 months, p = 0.06, ANOVA, and 72.3 months vs 31.8 months, p = 0.035, ANOVA, respectively).<h4>Conclusions</h4>We recommend that local excision be considered the sole treatment for stage 1 node-negative tumours that have clear margins and advantageous histology regardless of HIV status. However, PLWH who have local excision alone must have access to an expert long-term surveillance programme after treatment to identify late recurrences.
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Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Techniques in coloproctology, 2021, 25 (9), pp. 1027 - 1036