Questions to guide cancer evolution as a framework for furthering progress in cancer research and sustainable patient outcomes.
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We appear to be faced with 'two truths' in cancer-one of major advances and successes and another one of remaining short-comings and significant challenges. Despite decades of research and substantial progress in treating cancer, most patients with metastatic cancer still experience great suffering and poor outcomes. Metastatic cancer, for the vast majority of patients, remains incurable. In the context of advanced disease, many clinical trials report only incremental advances in progression-free and overall survival. At the same time, the breadth and depth of new scientific discoveries in cancer research are staggering. These discoveries are providing increasing mechanistic detail into the inner workings of normal and cancer cells, as well as into cancer-host interactions; however, progress remains frustratingly slow in translating these discoveries into improved diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic interventions. Despite enormous advances in cancer research and progress in progression-free survival, or even cures, for certain cancer types-with earlier detection followed by surgical, adjuvant, targeted, or immuno- therapies, we must challenge ourselves to do even better where patients do not respond or experience evolving therapy resistance. We propose that defining cancer evolution as a separate domain of study and integrating the concept of evolvability as a core hallmark of cancer can help position scientific discoveries into a framework that can be more effectively harnessed to improve cancer detection and therapy outcomes and to eventually decrease cancer lethality. In this perspective, we present key questions and suggested areas of study that must be considered-not only by the field of cancer evolution, but by all investigators researching, diagnosing, and treating cancer.
Evolutionary fitness landscapes
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Medical Oncology, 2022, 39 (9), pp. 137 -
HUMANA PRESS INC
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
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