Roles of Elongator Dependent tRNA Modification Pathways in Neurodegeneration and Cancer.
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Transfer RNA (tRNA) is subject to a multitude of posttranscriptional modifications which can profoundly impact its functionality as the essential adaptor molecule in messenger RNA (mRNA) translation. Therefore, dynamic regulation of tRNA modification in response to environmental changes can tune the efficiency of gene expression in concert with the emerging epitranscriptomic mRNA regulators. Several of the tRNA modifications are required to prevent human diseases and are particularly important for proper development and generation of neurons. In addition to the positive role of different tRNA modifications in prevention of neurodegeneration, certain cancer types upregulate tRNA modification genes to sustain cancer cell gene expression and metastasis. Multiple associations of defects in genes encoding subunits of the tRNA modifier complex Elongator with human disease highlight the importance of proper anticodon wobble uridine modifications (xm⁵U34) for health. Elongator functionality requires communication with accessory proteins and dynamic phosphorylation, providing regulatory control of its function. Here, we summarized recent insights into molecular functions of the complex and the role of Elongator dependent tRNA modification in human disease.
wobble uridine modifications
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Genes, 2018, 10 (1), pp. E19 -