Characterization of the diffusion coefficient of blood.
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PURPOSE:To characterize the diffusion coefficient of human blood for accurate results in intravoxel incoherent motion imaging. METHODS:Diffusion-weighted MRI of blood samples from 10 healthy volunteers was acquired with a single-shot echo-planar-imaging sequence at body temperature. Effects of gradient profile (monopolar or flow-compensated), diffusion time (40-100 ms), and echo time (60-200 ms) were investigated. RESULTS:Although measured apparent diffusion coefficients of blood were larger for flow-compensated than for monopolar gradients, no dependence of the apparent diffusion coefficient on the diffusion time was found. Large differences between individual samples were observed, with results ranging from 1.26 to 1.66 µm2 /ms for flow-compensated and 0.94 to 1.52 µm2 /ms for monopolar gradients. Statistical analysis indicates correlations of the flow-compensated apparent diffusion coefficient with hematocrit (P = 0.007) and hemoglobin (P = 0.017), but not with mean corpuscular volume (P = 0.64). Results of Monte-Carlo simulations support the experimental observations. CONCLUSIONS:Measured blood apparent diffusion coefficient values depend on hematocrit/hemoglobin concentration and applied gradient profile due to non-Gaussian diffusion. Because in vivo measurement is delicate, an estimation based on blood count results could be an alternative. For intravoxel incoherent motion modeling, the use of a blood self-diffusion constant Db = 1.54 ± 0.12 µm2 /ms for flow-compensated and Db = 1.30 ± 0.18 µm2 /ms for monopolar encoding is suggested. Magn Reson Med 79:2752-2758, 2018. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Blood Physiological Phenomena
Radiotherapy Physics Modelling
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Magnetic resonance in medicine, 2018, 79 (5), pp. 2752 - 2758