The NSD1 and EZH2 overgrowth genes, similarities and differences.
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NSD1 and EZH2 are SET domain-containing histone methyltransferases that play key roles in the regulation of transcription through histone modification and chromatin modeling: NSD1 preferentially methylates lysine residue 36 of histone 3 (H3K36) and is primarily associated with active transcription, while EZH2 shows specificity for lysine residue 27 (H3K27) and is associated with transcriptional repression. Somatic dysregulation of NSD1 and EZH2 have been associated with tumorigenesis. NSD1, as a fusion transcript with NUP98, plays a key role in leukemogenesis, particularly childhood acute myeloid leukemia. EZH2 is a major proto-oncogene and mono- and biallelic activating and inactivating somatic mutations occur as early events in the development of tumors, particularly poor prognosis hematopoietic malignancies. Constitutional NSD1 and EZH2 mutations cause Sotos and Weaver syndromes respectively, overgrowth syndromes with considerable phenotypic overlap. NSD1 mutations that cause Sotos syndrome are loss-of-function, primarily truncating mutations or missense mutations at key residues in functional domains. EZH2 mutations that cause Weaver syndrome are primarily missense variants and the rare truncating mutations reported to date are in the last exon, suggesting that simple haploinsufficiency is unlikely to be generating the overgrowth phenotype although the exact mechanism has not yet been determined. Many additional questions about the molecular and clinical features of NSD1 and EZH2 remain unanswered. However, studies are underway to address these and, as more cases are ascertained and technology improves, it is hoped that these will, in time, be answered.
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Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Polycomb Repressive Complex 2
American journal of medical genetics. Part C, Seminars in medical genetics, 2013, 163C (2), pp. 86 - 91