LONG-NONCODING RNAs in gastroesophageal cancers.
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Despite continuing improvements in multimodal therapies, gastro-esophageal malignances remain widely prevalent in the population and is characterized by poor overall and disease-free survival rates. Due to the lack of understanding about the pathogenesis and absence of reliable markers, gastro-esophageal cancers are associated with delayed diagnosis. The increasing understanding about cancer's molecular landscape in the recent years, offers the possibility of identifying 'targetable' molecular events and in particular facilitates novel treatment strategies and development of biomarkers for early stage diagnosis. At least 98% of our genome is actively transcribed into non-coding RNAs encompassing long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) constituted of transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides with no protein-coding capacity. Many studies have demonstrated that lncRNAs are functional genomic elements playing pivotal roles in main oncogenic processes. LncRNA can act at multiple levels developing a complex molecular network that can modulate directly or indirectly the expression of genes involved in tumorigenesis. In this review, we focus on lncRNAs as emerging players in gastro-esophageal carcinogenesis and critically assess their potential as reliable noninvasive biomarkers and in next generation targeted therapies.
Gastrointestinal Cancer Biology and Genomics
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Non-coding RNA research, 2018, 3 (4), pp. 195 - 212