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dc.contributor.authorSchoemaker, MJ
dc.contributor.authorFolkerd, EJ
dc.contributor.authorJones, ME
dc.contributor.authorRae, M
dc.contributor.authorAllen, S
dc.contributor.authorAshworth, A
dc.contributor.authorDowsett, M
dc.contributor.authorSwerdlow, AJ
dc.date.accessioned2020-08-14T15:39:57Z
dc.date.issued2014-04
dc.identifier.citationBritish journal of cancer, 2014, 110 (7), pp. 1898 - 1907
dc.identifier.issn0007-0920
dc.identifier.urihttps://repository.icr.ac.uk/handle/internal/3975
dc.identifier.eissn1532-1827
dc.identifier.doi10.1038/bjc.2014.64
dc.description.abstractBackground Mammographic density and sex hormone levels are strong risk factors for breast cancer, but it is unclear whether they represent the same aetiological entity or are independent risk factors.Methods Within the Breakthrough Generations Study cohort, we conducted a case-control study of 265 postmenopausal breast cancer cases and 343 controls with prediagnostic mammograms and blood samples. Plasma was assayed for oestradiol, testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations and mammographic density assessed by Cumulus.Results Oestradiol and testosterone were negatively and SHBG positively associated with percentage density and absolute dense area, but after adjusting for body mass index the associations remained significant only for SHBG. Breast cancer risk was independently and significantly positively associated with percentage density (P=0.002), oestradiol (P=0.002) and testosterone (P=0.007) levels. Women in the highest tertile of both density and sex hormone level were at greatest risk, with an odds ratio of 7.81 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.89-21.1) for oestradiol and 4.57 (95% CI: 1.75-11.9) for testosterone and high density compared with those who were in the lowest tertiles. The cumulative risk of breast cancer in the highest oestradiol and density tertiles, representing 8% of controls, was estimated as 12.8% at ages 50-69 years and 19.4% at ages 20-79 years, and in the lowest tertiles was 1.7% and 4.3%, respectively. Associations of breast cancer risk with tertiles of mammographic dense area were less strong than for percentage density.Conclusions Endogenous sex hormone levels and mammographic density are independent risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer, which in combination can identify women who might benefit from increased frequency of screening and chemoprophylaxis.
dc.formatPrint-Electronic
dc.format.extent1898 - 1907
dc.languageeng
dc.language.isoeng
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0
dc.subjectMammary Glands, Human
dc.subjectHumans
dc.subjectBreast Neoplasms
dc.subjectTestosterone
dc.subjectEstradiol
dc.subjectSex Hormone-Binding Globulin
dc.subjectRisk Factors
dc.subjectCase-Control Studies
dc.subjectPostmenopause
dc.subjectAdult
dc.subjectAged
dc.subjectMiddle Aged
dc.subjectFemale
dc.subjectYoung Adult
dc.subjectBreast Density
dc.titleCombined effects of endogenous sex hormone levels and mammographic density on postmenopausal breast cancer risk: results from the Breakthrough Generations Study.
dc.typeJournal Article
dcterms.dateAccepted2014-01-16
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1038/bjc.2014.64
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2014-04
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
dc.relation.isPartOfBritish journal of cancer
pubs.issue7
pubs.notesNot known
pubs.organisational-group/ICR
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Breast Cancer Research
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Breast Cancer Research/Aetiological Epidemiology
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Breast Cancer Research/Endocrinology
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Breast Cancer Research/Gene Function
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Genetics and Epidemiology
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Genetics and Epidemiology/Aetiological Epidemiology
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Molecular Pathology
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Molecular Pathology/Endocrinology
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Molecular Pathology/Endocrinology/Endocrinology (hon.)
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Molecular Pathology/Gene Function
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/Royal Marsden Clinical Units
pubs.organisational-group/ICR
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Breast Cancer Research
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Breast Cancer Research/Aetiological Epidemiology
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Breast Cancer Research/Endocrinology
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Breast Cancer Research/Gene Function
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Genetics and Epidemiology
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Genetics and Epidemiology/Aetiological Epidemiology
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Molecular Pathology
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Molecular Pathology/Endocrinology
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Molecular Pathology/Endocrinology/Endocrinology (hon.)
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/ICR Divisions/Molecular Pathology/Gene Function
pubs.organisational-group/ICR/Primary Group/Royal Marsden Clinical Units
pubs.publication-statusPublished
pubs.volume110
pubs.embargo.termsNot known
icr.researchteamAetiological Epidemiologyen_US
icr.researchteamEndocrinologyen_US
icr.researchteamGene Functionen_US
dc.contributor.icrauthorFolkerd, Elizabethen
dc.contributor.icrauthorAllen, Stevenen
dc.contributor.icrauthorAshworth, Alanen
dc.contributor.icrauthorSwerdlow, Anthonyen
dc.contributor.icrauthorSchoemaker, Minouken
dc.contributor.icrauthorDowsett, Mitchen
dc.contributor.icrauthorJones, Michaelen


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