Clinical <i>BRCA1/2</i> Reversion Analysis Identifies Hotspot Mutations and Predicted Neoantigens Associated with Therapy Resistance.
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Reversion mutations in <i>BRCA1</i> or <i>BRCA2</i> are associated with resistance to PARP inhibitors and platinum. To better understand the nature of these mutations, we collated, codified, and analyzed more than 300 reversions. This identified reversion "hotspots" and "deserts" in regions encoding the <i>N</i> and <i>C</i> terminus, respectively, of BRCA2, suggesting that pathogenic mutations in these regions may be at higher or lower risk of reversion. Missense and splice-site pathogenic mutations in <i>BRCA1/2</i> also appeared less likely to revert than truncating mutations. Most reversions were <100 bp deletions. Although many deletions exhibited microhomology, this was not universal, suggesting that multiple DNA-repair processes cause reversion. Finally, we found that many reversions were predicted to encode immunogenic neopeptides, suggesting a route to the treatment of reverted disease. As well as providing a freely available database for the collation of future reversion cases, these observations have implications for how drug resistance might be managed in <i>BRCA</i>-mutant cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: Reversion mutations in <i>BRCA</i> genes are a major cause of clinical platinum and PARP inhibitor resistance. This analysis of all reported clinical reversions suggests that the position of <i>BRCA2</i> mutations affects the risk of reversion. Many reversions are also predicted to encode tumor neoantigens, providing a potential route to targeting resistance.<i>This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1426</i>.
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Cancer discovery, 2020, 10 (10), pp. 1475 - 1488