Magnitude of observer error using cone beam CT for prostate interfraction motion estimation: effect of reducing scan length or increasing exposure.
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Objective Cone beam CT (CBCT) enables soft-tissue registration to planning CT for position verification in radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to determine the interobserver error (IOE) in prostate position verification using a standard CBCT protocol, and the effect of reducing CBCT scan length or increasing exposure, compared with standard imaging protocol.Methods CBCT images were acquired using a novel 7 cm length image with standard exposure (1644 mAs) at Fraction 1 (7), standard 12 cm length image (1644 mAs) at Fraction 2 (12) and a 7 cm length image with higher exposure (2632 mAs) at Fraction 3 (7H) on 31 patients receiving radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Eight observers (two clinicians and six radiographers) registered the images. Guidelines and training were provided. The means of the IOEs were compared using a Kruzkal-Wallis test. Levene's test was used to test for differences in the variances of the IOEs and the independent prostate position.Results No significant difference was found between the IOEs of each image protocol in any direction. Mean absolute IOE was the greatest in the anteroposterior direction. Standard deviation (SD) of the IOE was the least in the left-right direction for each of the three image protocols. The SD of the IOE was significantly less than the independent prostate motion in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction only (1.8 and 3.0 mm, respectively: p = 0.017). IOEs were within 1 SD of the independent prostate motion in 95%, 77% and 96% of the images in the RL, SI and AP direction.Conclusion Reducing CBCT scan length and increasing exposure did not have a significant effect on IOEs. To reduce imaging dose, a reduction in CBCT scan length could be considered without increasing the uncertainty in prostate registration. Precision of CBCT verification of prostate radiotherapy is affected by IOE and should be quantified prior to implementation.Advances in knowledge This study shows the importance of quantifying the magnitude of IOEs prior to CBCT implementation.
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Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted
Reproducibility of Results
Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
Clinical Academic Radiotherapy (Dearnaley)
Clinical Academic Radiotherapy (Huddart)
Imaging for Radiotherapy Adaptation
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The British journal of radiology, 2015, 88 (1054), pp. 20150208 - ?