Outcomes in Patients with Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Followed by (Chemo)radiotherapy in the BC2001 Trial.
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<h4>Background</h4>BC2001 demonstrated improved local control with the addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy in 360 patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.<h4>Objective</h4>To establish whether such benefit remained in BC2001 patients who received prior neoadjuvant chemotherapy.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>A total of 117 patients (33%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and were randomised to radiotherapy with (48%) or without (52%) concomitant chemotherapy. Patients were recruited between August 2001 and April 2008 from 28 UK centres.<h4>Intervention</h4>Platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by radiotherapy with (cRT) or without (RT) synchronous 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin-C.<h4>Outcome measurements and statistical analysis</h4>Toxicity, locoregional control (LRC), overall survival (OS), and quality of life (QoL) were measured.<h4>Results and limitations</h4>Of the patients, 74% received gemcitabine plus cisplatin or carboplatin. Compliance rates with full-dose radiotherapy were cRT 93% and RT 92%. An excess of grade ≥3 toxicities while on (chemo)radiation occurred for cRT 33% versus RT 22%, although nonstatistically significant (p = 0.16). With 110 mo median follow-up for survival (interquartile range 96-123), cRT showed improved LRC though not statistically significant (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33-1.23, p = 0.18). No differences in OS (aHR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.57-1.57, p = 0.8) were observed. No significant detriment in QoL was observed between cRT and RT in this subgroup of patients.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Neoadjuvant chemotherapy does not compromise the delivery of radical curative treatment. Although underpowered due to a small sample size, the benefit of chemoradiotherapy to improve local control in this group of patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy is consistent with that observed in the main trial. Although a nonsignificant excess of toxicity was observed, there was no evidence of impaired QoL.<h4>Patient summary</h4>Chemotherapy before radical chemo(radiotherapy) is feasible and well tolerated.
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Clinical Trials & Statistics Unit
ICR-CTSU Urology and Head and Neck Trials Team
Clinical Academic Radiotherapy (Huddart)
Prostate and Bladder Cancer Research
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European urology, 2020