Infertility and risk of breast cancer in men: a national case-control study in England and Wales.
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PURPOSE: Breast cancer is uncommon in men and its aetiology is largely unknown, reflecting the limited size of studies thus far conducted. In general, number of children fathered has been found a risk factor inconsistently, and infertility not. We therefore investigated in a case-control study, the relation of risk of breast cancer in men to infertility and number of children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a national case-control study in England and Wales, interviewing 1998 cases incident 2005-17 and 1597 male controls, which included questions on infertility and offspring. RESULTS: Risk of breast cancer was statistically significantly associated with male-origin infertility (OR = 2.03 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-3.49)) but not if a couple's infertility had been diagnosed as of origin from the female partner (OR = 0.86 (0.51-1.45)). Risk was statistically significantly raised for men who had not fathered any children (OR = 1.50 (95% CI 1.21-1.86)) compared with men who were fathers. These associations were statistically significantly present for invasive tumours but not statistically significant for in situ tumours. CONCLUSION: Our data give strong evidence that risk of breast cancer is increased for men who are infertile. The reason is not clear and needs investigation.
Breast Neoplasms, Male
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Breast Cancer Research, 2022, 24 (1), pp. 29 -