Proteomic analysis of extracellular vesicles from a <i>Plasmodium falciparum</i> Kenyan clinical isolate defines a core parasite secretome.
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<h4>Background</h4>Many pathogens secrete effector molecules to subvert host immune responses, to acquire nutrients, and/or to prepare host cells for invasion. One of the ways that effector molecules are secreted is through extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes. Recently, the malaria parasite <i>P. falciparum</i> has been shown to produce EVs that can mediate transfer of genetic material between parasites and induce sexual commitment. Characterizing the content of these vesicles may improve our understanding of <i>P. falciparum</i> pathogenesis and virulence.<h4>Methods</h4>Previous studies of <i>P. falciparum</i> EVs have been limited to long-term adapted laboratory isolates. In this study, we isolated EVs from a Kenyan <i>P. falciparum</i> clinical isolate adapted to <i>in vitro</i> culture for a short period and characterized their protein content by mass spectrometry (data are available via ProteomeXchange, with identifier PXD006925).<h4>Results</h4>We show that <i>P. falciparum</i> extracellular vesicles ( <i>Pf</i>EVs) are enriched in proteins found within the exomembrane compartments of infected erythrocytes such as Maurer's clefts (MCs), as well as the secretory endomembrane compartments in the apical end of the merozoites, suggesting that these proteins play a role in parasite-host interactions. Comparison of this novel clinically relevant dataset with previously published datasets helps to define a core secretome present in <i>Plasmodium</i> EVs.<h4>Conclusions</h4><i>P. falciparum</i> extracellular vesicles contain virulence-associated parasite proteins. Therefore, analysis of <i>Pf</i>EVs contents from a range of clinical isolates, and their functional validation may improve our understanding of the virulence mechanisms of the parasite, and potentially identify targets for interventions or diagnostics.
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Wellcome open research, 2017, 2 pp. 50 - ?