Whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI in lymphoma-comparison of global apparent diffusion coefficient histogram parameters for differentiation of diseased nodes of lymphoma patients from normal lymph nodes of healthy individuals.
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<h4>Background</h4>Morphologic features yield low diagnostic accuracy to distinguish between diseased and normal lymph nodes. The purpose of this study was to compare diseased lymphomatous and normal lymph nodes using global apparent diffusion coefficient (gADC) histogram parameters derived from whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI (WB-DWI).<h4>Methods</h4>1.5 Tesla WB-DWI of 23 lymphoma patients and 20 healthy volunteers performed between 09/2010 and 07/2015 were retrospectively reviewed. All diseased nodal groups in the lymphoma cohort and all nodes visible on b900 images in healthy volunteers were segmented from neck to groin to generate a total diffusion volume (tDV). A connected component-labelling algorithm separated spatially distinct nodes. Mean, median, skewness, kurtosis, minimum, maximum, interquartile range (IQR), standard deviation (SD), 10<sup>th</sup> and 90<sup>th</sup> centile of the gADC distribution were derived from the tDV of each patient/volunteer and from spatially distinct nodes. gADC and regional nodal ADC parameters were compared between malignant and normal nodes using <i>t</i>-tests and ROC curve analyses. A P value ≤0.05 was deemed statistically significant.<h4>Results</h4>Mean, median, IQR, 10th and 90th centiles of gADC and regional nodal ADC values were significantly lower in diseased compared with normal lymph nodes. Skewness, kurtosis and tDV were significantly higher in lymphoma. The SD, min and max gADC showed no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.128). The diagnostic accuracies of gADC parameters by AUC from highest to lowest were: 10th centile, mean, median, 90th centile, skewness, kurtosis and IQR. A 10th centile gADC threshold of 0.68×10<sup>-3</sup> mm<sup>2</sup>/s identified diseased lymphomatous nodes with 91% sensitivity and 95% specificity.<h4>Conclusions</h4>WB-DWI derived gADC histogram parameters can distinguish between malignant lymph nodes of lymphoma patients and normal lymph nodes of healthy individuals.
Quantitative imaging in medicine and surgery, 2021, 11 (8), pp. 3549 - 3561