A Role for the Bone Marrow Microenvironment in Drug Resistance of Acute Myeloid Leukemia
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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease with a poor prognosis and remarkable resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Understanding resistance mechanisms against currently available drugs helps to recognize the therapeutic obstacles. Various mechanisms of resistance to chemotherapy or targeted inhibitors have been described for AML cells, including a role for the bone marrow niche in both the initiation and persistence of the disease, and in drug resistance of the leukemic stem cell (LSC) population. The BM niche supports LSC survival through direct and indirect interactions among the stromal cells, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, and leukemic cells. Additionally, the BM niche mediates changes in metabolic and signal pathway activation due to the acquisition of new mutations or selection and expansion of a minor clone. This review briefly discusses the role of the BM microenvironment and metabolic pathways in resistance to therapy, as discovered through AML clinical studies or cell line and animal models.
Cells, 10 (11), pp. 2833 - 2833