Genomic Abnormalities as Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a highly heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the clonal expansion of myeloid stem and progenitor cells in the bone marrow, peripheral blood, and other tissues. AML results from the acquisition of gene mutations or chromosomal abnormalities that induce proliferation or block differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors. A combination of cytogenetic profiling and gene mutation analyses are essential for the proper diagnosis, classification, prognosis, and treatment of AML. In the present review, we provide a summary of genomic abnormalities in AML that have emerged as both markers of disease and therapeutic targets. We discuss the abnormalities of RARA, FLT3, BCL2, IDH1, and IDH2, their significance as therapeutic targets in AML, and how various mechanisms cause resistance to the currently FDA-approved inhibitors. We also discuss the limitations of current genomic approaches for producing a comprehensive picture of the activated signaling pathways at diagnosis or at relapse in AML patients, and how innovative technologies combining genomic and functional methods will improve the discovery of novel therapeutic targets in AML. The ultimate goal is to optimize a personalized medicine approach for AML patients and possibly those with other types of cancers.
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Cancers, 2021, 13 (20)